New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

Repetitive deep TMS for the reduction of body weight: Bimodal effect on the functional brain connectivity in "diabesity"

Thu, 04/15/2021 - 10:00

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2021 Feb 25:S0939-4753(21)00084-3. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2021.02.015. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Deep repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (deep rTMS) over the bilateral insula and prefrontal cortex (PFC) can promote weight-loss in obesity, preventing cardiometabolic complications as Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). To investigate the changes in the functional brain integration after dTMS, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) study in obesity.

METHODS AND RESULTS: This preliminary study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study: 9 participants were treated with high-frequency stimulation (realTMS group), 8 were sham-treated (shamTMS group). Out of the 17 enrolled patients, 6 were affected by T2D. Resting-state fMRI scans were acquired at baseline (T0) and after the 5-week intervention (T1). Body weight was measured at three time points [T0, T1, 1-month follow-up visit (FU1)]. A mixed-model analysis showed a significant group-by-time interaction for body weight (p = .04), with a significant decrease (p < .001) in the realTMS group. The rsFC data revealed a significant increase of degree centrality for the realTMS group in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and a significant decrease in the occipital pole.

CONCLUSION: An increase of whole-brain functional connections of the mOFC, together with the decrease of whole-brain functional connections with the occipital pole, may reflect a brain mechanism behind weight-loss through a diminished reactivity to bottom-up visual-sensory processes in favor of increased reliance on top-down decision-making processes.


PMID:33853721 | DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2021.02.015

Neurovascular coupling dysfunction in end-stage renal disease patients related to cognitive impairment

Thu, 04/15/2021 - 10:00

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2021 Apr 14:271678X211007960. doi: 10.1177/0271678X211007960. Online ahead of print.


We aimed to investigate the neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients related with cognitive impairment. Twenty-five ESRD patients and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. To assess the NVC dysfunctional pattern, resting-state functional MRI and arterial spin labeling were explored to estimate the coupling of spontaneous neuronal activity and cerebral blood perfusion based on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)-cerebral blood flow (CBF), fractional ALFF (fALFF)-CBF, regional homogeneity (ReHo)-CBF, and degree centrality (DC)-CBF correlation coefficients. Multivariate partial least-squares correlation and mediation analyses were used to evaluate the relationship among NVC dysfunctional pattern, cognitive impairment and clinical characteristics. The NVC dysfunctional patterns in ESRD patients were significantly decreased in 34 brain regions compared with healthy controls. The decreased fALFF-CBF coefficients in the cingulate gyrus (CG) were associated positively with lower kinetic transfer/volume urea (Kt/V) and lower short-term memory scores, and were negatively associated with higher serum urea. The relationship between Kt/V and memory deficits of ESRD patients was partially mediated by the fALFF-CBF alteration of the CG. These findings reveal the NVC dysfunction may be a potential neural mechanism for cognitive impairment in ESRD. The regional NVC dysfunction may mediate the impact of dialysis adequacy on memory function.

PMID:33853410 | DOI:10.1177/0271678X211007960